Plum is a deliciously sweet fruit found in our country’s hilly regions and northern plains and its farming is called plum cultivation in India. The plum lives in the Rosaceae family and the genus Prunus domestica. Almonds and peaches are also in the same family. The plums are purple and sometimes even brown. It mostly consists of a fleshy inside and a seed in it. Plums are rich in antioxidants, vitamins, etc., and we can eat plums fresh, dried or in the form of jam, etc.
There are 2 types of plum, i.e. European and Japanese. However, it can be divided into more than 200 varieties worldwide. Plum plants are extensively oriented, limited, and require minimum care compared to almost all fruits plants.
Plum farming requires the most important equipment, which plays a major role in agro-processing. Equipment, harvesters, and tractors are the main in plum cultivation; Hence, we suggest the Swaraj 744, and Mahindra tractor 275. The Mahindra tractor 275 DI on road price is affordable for every Indian farmer.
The Procedure of Cultivation of Plum:-
The plum generally requires a cool or temperate climate for its growth. However, farmers cultivate plums among Kashmir’s hills with temperatures close to 0 °C in the plains of Rajasthan with rising temperatures of more than 45 °C. Plums require hours of cooling to less than 7.2 °C. Plums can tolerate high summers as well as cold winters.
Typical loamy, sandy soils, which are deep, are best for plum cultivation. Plums grow best within the neutral pH range of soil that is 5 to 6.5. Soils that dry out rapidly or hold water for a long time should be avoided at all costs. Farmers should maintain the Proper drainage system within the soil to get better productivity of plums.
Land Preparation For Plum Cultivation
You should free the soil from hardpan and also must deep plow in the field. Farmers should harrow the field to break any large clods. They must level the land. Pits must be made in the field to plant trees in the orchard.
Farmers can raise rootstock by sowing peach and plum seeds in late October or the first week of November. The seeds germinate from February to March. You should allow the seedling to grow until they reach about 7 inches tall and 2 mm in diameter. Budding is done from May to June. Shield budding technology is best suited.
Farmers can propagate using cuttings or seeds. Varieties such as Kala Amritsari include cuttings of hardwoods. They can also use the Kabul Hari variety for propagation. Farmers can use the IBA solution to increase the original percentage. The cutting measures more or less like a pencil about 7 inches long and 2 mm in diameter. The use of an IBA solution takes the success rate to around 80%.
Farmers collect and store the seeds of black Amritsari during summers. The accumulated seeds are then sewn under the sandy soil in November. A thickness of 5 cm of sand is kept over the seeds for good germination. The process is complete when the seedling begins to emerge from the seed. Then they sow the seedlings in rows at a distance of 8-10 cm from each other. Farmers should keep the distance of 25 to 30 cm between the lines. Light irrigation is usually good, and it will be ready for grafting next year.
The young shoot grows for around 1 year and can be planted in the fields, possibly in December. You should maintain the distance between the plants and rows should be 6 meters. Thus, square system cultivation is done, and around 270 trees are planted per hectare of land.
Training is to be done according to the variety. Most of the Japanese group ones are most likely to have a spreading habit. Therefore you should use open center systems. Farmers should use a modified leader structure for the upright growing plants. They should alter leader branches after 4 years. You should also collect 4 to 5 secondary branches. Farmers must prune the trees around January to achieve good quality spur and proper growth. Plum fruit is observed after 1 year and the older wood spurs.
Irrigation Requirement For Plum Farming
During the rainy season, irrigation is not required. However, plum cultivation requires adequate moisture in the root zone during its growth period. Therefore, light irrigation should be given at an interval of one week during the summer season. The irrigation interval is increased to 20 days in the winter season. Irrigation should be stopped during the flowering and ripening stage from December to January to ensure a proper fruit set.
- Farmers should apply fertilizer according to the soil. Loamy soils require more, whereas hard soils require less.
- It also depends on the application of fertilizer according to the age of the plant. The main components are farmyard manure, urea, superphosphate, and potash.
- For children 1-2 years old, 60-120 grams of superphosphate, 5-10 kg of manure, 50-100 grams of urea, and 25-50 grams of potash.
- For children 3-4 years old, 15-20 kg of manure, 150-200 g of urea, 180-240 g of superphosphate, and 75-100 g of potash.
- 25-30 kg manure, 250-300 g urea, 300-400 g superphosphate, and 125-150 g potash for 5-6-year-old children
- 40 kg manure, 300 g urea, 400 g superphosphate, and 200 g potash for more than 7 years.
Seed Varieties For Plum Cultivation
It is an early maturing, self-incompatible variety that needs to be mixed with other varieties to produce fruit. The fruits are red in color, medium-sized, and weigh about 26 to 30 grams. The fruit pulp is yellow with a TSS of 12 to 14% and an acidity point of 6.2.7%. The average yield per tree is 30-40 kg fruit.
It is a vigorous variety that gives deep purple-colored fruits. The fruit’s pulp is yellow, with TSS ranging from 13 to 15% and acidity between 1.1 to 1.3%. The average yield per tree is 50-55 kg fruit.
It is a self-incompatible variety. The fruits are large, and yellow to orange colored epicarp are present. The TSS is about 15%, with an acidity of 0.6-0.7%.
In the guidelines of this farming, We came here to inform some important points about plum farming. In such a way, we suggest the Powertrac euro 47 Tractor and john deere 5205 Tractor. Apart from this, farming needs various equipment such as a rotary tiller, a cultivator, and many implements.
For more information regarding the plum farming business, stay tuned with us.